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Fresh Ideas for Teaching Shakespeare

1. Grab their attention with a game.

Students have a lot of preconceived notions about Shakespeare, so I try to “shake” things up by starting off my unit with an attention grabber. Previously, I always started my unit with the first few minutes of “The Shakespeare Code” from Doctor Who, which shows the Doctor and Martha arriving to Elizabethan London. The Doctor “translates” the customs and habits for Martha, like pulling her out of the way of a dumped chamber pot! This is one way to get students excited right out of the gate.

Now, I have students play through a digital breakout I madecalled “The Missing Script”. Students play as Alex, an aspiring actor, and Alex helps Shakespeare’s servant find a misplaced script. The game takes students through the Globe (they look high and low – maybe the servant left it in the Galleries?), over the London Bridge, and through the Royal Exchange. They solve puzzles as they learn about Shakespeare’s London, and, if they are successful, they find the missing script!

2. Introduce Shakespeare's Language (gently)

I love Shakespeare’s language as much as the next gal and I’m capable of really nerding out about it. That doesn’t necessarily mean our students are ready to do the same. Instead of giving them a list of the two thousand words Shakespeare added to the English language, why not focus on just a few? Likewise, you can introduce a few politeness concepts like “thou” vs. “you” that carry a lot of meaning in his plays.

One of the ways I do this is to have my students complete a Webquest focused on Shakespeare’s language. They watch a brief video (3 minutes!) about Shakespeare’s contributions to English and a portion of a TED talk by Akala that explains Iambic Pentameter in a memorable way.

You can also distribute these bookmarks to your students to help them remember the basics – who doesn’t love a good bookmark? 

3. Bring your classroom onto the stage.

I love incorporating drama into my classroom, so it’s not a stretch to give students the stage in our Shakespeare units. If you’re a little hesitant about how to work this in, I’m here to tell you that you DO have time, and students WILL step up and embrace the responsibility.

I’ve been working with shortened scripts lately (I call them Shakespeare in 30 since the final show only takes 30 minutes!), and it’s amazing! Students can use these scripts for Reader’s Theatre after a class period or two to practice. They could even work a little longer and add blocking and costumes for a Staged Reading. Lastly, they can memorize their lines completely in a 2-3 week unit and perform their plays for each other. This is a great way to expose students to more Shakespeare beyond just one play – you could easily have your students in groups that each perform a different text.

4. Give your students permission to play with the language

It’s easy to think that Shakespeare’s texts should be held on a pedestal, but the reality is that he changed around his scenes all the time. Particularly in comedies, he was constantly at work to get the biggest laugh to cater to the biggest scandals of the day (think SNL here, folks). We can give students this same creative license.

One of my favorite projects from my very first year of teaching was to have students rewrite the end of Much Ado About Nothing as a tragedy. This idea came from another English teacher, and I was a little skeptical, but the kids dove in. They had such a great time giving characters dramatic monologues and forlorn glances and soap opera deaths. Another project I’ve seen in my time working with our local teen group, the Southeastern Teen Shakespeare Company (SETSCO), is a retelling of Romeo & Juliet in five pop songs. From the brawl scene (“Uptown Funk”) to the lovers’ deaths (“If I Die Young), the whole thing takes about 15 minutes and is just a hoot. Whatever way you come up with, challenge students to make the stories their own.

5. Invite new interpretations and adaptations

Lastly, challenge students to look for new insights into old texts. This is why we still have Shakespearean scholars, right? Because there’s still more to learn.

Instead of giving students one correct story, allow them to find many stories in the text. How would it change things if Claudio were perceived as a bumbling stepfather who’s really trying, but Hamlet just won’t let him in? How about if we look at Lady Macbeth through a modern lens of mental health and diagnose her with anxiety and depression? What if we examined all of Othello through Desdemona’s eyes?

Students can also create their own adaptations. One of the things that SETSCO did was to perform a mostly-mime Much Ado About Nothing. In this version, each character only said 1-2 words at a time, and meaning was conveyed through inflection and movement. This unique spin on the story amplified the depiction of Don John and Don Pedro’s manipulation of the other characters and gave the audience new insight into an old story.

Final Words

There’s no reason for students to ever consider Shakespeare old and tired. Instead, help them view these texts as a playground for imaginative analysis and creative reworking. These are a few of the things I do in my classroom and community, and I can’t wait to see what you do in yours! Tag me on Instagram at @nouvelle_ela and let me know how it’s going. :)

You can also check out these Shakespeare resources from other Coffee Shop teachers:

Teaching Poetry? Focus on the Process

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.
Let's face it. Many of our students see poetry analysis as one the world's greatest mysteries. They read a challenging poem and hope that something or someone will appear before them to unlock the secret. If they don't "get it" right away, they shut down and proclaim that the poem is too hard -- or "stupid." 

More often than not, these reactions happen because a student gets overwhelmed and doesn't know where to start. That's why I devote lots of time breaking down the steps of poetry analysis, so my kids feel less afraid of the whole process.  

Here are five strategies I use to remove the fear and mystery associated with poetry:

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.

One of the best ways to help kids understand poetry is to get them to experiment with writing some first. When students play around with their own words, they will be more likely to recognize when and how another poet is doing the same. 

Before I start any poetry unit, I make sure my students are very familiar with the ways that language can create meaning. We do figurative language challenges and word choice lessons to ensure that students understand the power of their own language. Then I give them free reign to express themselves through poetry. We have many conversations about using words to create meaning, and students explain their craft and purpose to each other. These conversations will help them later, when they do poetry analysis, because they can connect the techniques they used in their writing to the ones that they will explore in our poetry unit.

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.

I certainly want to give my kids challenging poetry that stretches their brains, but I don't do it on the first day. If I break out the Romantic and Victorian poets in the beginning, barriers will go up that I'll never climb over. My poetry unit will be dead on arrival. Instead, I prefer to create some interest and buzz with poems that teens can relate to, as well as ones they can "get" pretty easily. I want to build my students' confidence and interest first and then work toward more challenging poems. My favourite way to start is with Billy Collins' Introduction to Poetry, a poem that addresses the purpose of poetry analysis and that always leads to a great discussion with my students.  Then, we spend a class or two exploring some other high interest poems before we get too deep into analysis.

I've compiled a list of some engaging and accessible poems (with some recommendations from my friends at the Coffee Shop). You can grab it here.Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.

One of the best ways to get your kids on board with analysis is to show them how you do it. This helps them see that it does take work. Despite what they may think, we English teachers didn't come out of the womb clutching the secrets to poetry analysis. However, somewhere along the way we learned how to approach the process, so we don't shut down as soon as it gets hard.  

Give your students a peek into your brain by projecting a poem on the screen, or enlarging one and putting it on a piece of chart paper. Read the poem with students and then speak your process out loud. Start with your first impression of the poem. Then, talk about the things you don't understand: I'm not sure what the poet means here... she could be suggesting that...or it could be...  Annotate as you speak. Write ideas in the margins, including unanswered questions. Continue on until you've come up with some conclusions about the poet's purpose. Then, ask the kids what they think. If you're really brave, the best way to do this is with a poem you have never seen before. Ask the kids to find a poem for you to analyze. They can email it to you or bring a copy to class, but you need to make it clear to them that you've never seen it before. It may seem like a terrifying prospect, but it's a very effective strategy to show your students that we don't always know what we're doing, but when we're stumped, we have strategies to help us get over the wall.

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.

I give my students several opportunities to collaborate when they are learning to analyze poetry, so they can help each through the process. One of my favourite activities lets them work in groups to focus on only one element of a challenging poem; after, they get to see how each element works together. 
(you can grab the free lesson plan here)

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Freebie for middl and high school English teachers.

You will need to choose a poem that has multiple elements that you want students to look at (diction, imagery, sound and rhythm, figurative language, etc.). Each group will look at one of these, and after discussion, will create a poster that explains their conclusions about the poet's use of their assigned element. Groups will hang all of their posters on a wall of the classroom. Next, they do a gallery walk so each student can examine every group's work. Finally, the class will have a big discussion about the effect that each element has on the poem -- and how they all work together to create meaning. This exercise works really well because students get a chance to see how each part works to create the whole.

Eventually my students need to do a poetry analysis on their own. However, I still provide them with the opportunity to focus on the steps of poetry analysis, so they don't get overwhelmed when faced with a challenging poem.

Teaching poetry analysis by focusing on the process. Tips and strategies for middl and high school English teachers.

We use learning stations, and at each stop, the student is reminded of the elements they should consider in their poem, like structure, sound and figurative language. Since I've started using these stations, I'm grading papers that are so much better than the old days, when I assigned a poem without giving my students any scaffolding.

I hope I've given you a few ideas that you can use in your own classroom. If you'd like more information about focusing on process with literary analysis, you can head on over to this blog post. Also, my friends here at the Secondary English Coffee Shop have some amazing resources for poetry too. Check them out!

Presto Plans: Poetry Annotation

Nouvelle ELA: Poetry Escape Room
Secondary Sara: Digital Poetry Slam
The Daring English Teacher: Poetry Analysis with Sticky Notes
Addie Education: Poetry Activity Pack

Espresso Shot: 9 Ways to Take English Class Outside

Now that Spring's here, your students are getting antsy, and their attention keeps drifting towards the window. You may be antsy yourself, dreaming of Saturday morning when you can finally spend some time in the back yard or at the park. Well, the ladies of the Secondary English Coffee Shop are here to share some of our favorite ways to take English class outside.

1. I love to take my kids outside, but as we all know, releasing teenagers from the confines of the classroom does not always lead to much work. To make outdoor time meaningful and not just a sun-basking exercise, we have to be smart about what we ask them to do. One of my favourite activities is my poetry "scavenger hunt". We go to a nearby park and I send my kids to different locations to "find" inspiration. Then, when we do return to class, they have follow up activities to do. It's always one of the best days of the semester! Read more about it at my blog. -Room 213

2. I love it when a gorgeous day coincides with my plan to use a podcast in a lesson! Students almost always have their phones and earphones with them, and we go out to get some fresh air while listening. This is also great for students who need to move, or students wanting to lie in the sunshine! To read more about how I use podcasts in the ELA classroom, check out this post-Stacey Lloyd

3. Have your students play the role of photographer by sending them outside with their phones or cameras to capture images that can be used as inspiration for writing. Students can take pictures of anything that inspires them and send you best picture they took via email. Then, you can print the pictures, provide credit for who took the photo underneath, and use them as prompts for narrative or descriptive writing. This would look great on a bulletin board display with the pictures and writing displayed next to each other! -Presto Plans

4. Like Presto Plans, I love sending my students around the school to take pictures. We do this as part of our Photography Analysis unit, and students create the photos that their peers will analyze. We work on playing with space, perspective, light and shadow, and many other aspects of photography as we shoot. This is a great activity that can happen within school walls if, for some reason, you can’t take students all the way outside. The photo below was taken in the auditorium as students rehearsed for the musical.  -Nouvelle ELA

5. If you’re trying to review before an assessment, try “Quidditch”! We went outside to get ready for final exams. This game can be adapted to other non-grammar topics as well! You can read more about this at my blog -Secondary Sara

6. One of my favorite ways to help students find writing inspiration is to take them outside for a quick writing exercise. When we do this, we go to the quad or a grassy area on campus, and I instruct my students to write. It is more of a freewriting exercise than anything else because I want to instill in them that writing can be more than just an academic assignment many of them loathe. I have them describe with all of their senses what they are experience, or have them make up a story using the outdoors as a blank canvas, or have them write their feelings. -The Daring English Teacher

7. Sometimes I take my students outside just because, especially after spending a LONG winter inside the classroom! Last year, we went outside on the first nice day of spring and completed some peer edits on essays. Everyone was spread out, enjoying some sun and because they weren’t confined to their desks for a change, they seemed to focus that much more on each of the edits! -The Classroom Sparrow

8. The outside environment is the perfect place to have students think about the five senses to write an Imagery Poem. Even if the weather isn't perfect you can still spend some time outdoors soaking in the sights and sounds of the outdoor world. Ask your students to think about all of their sense and brainstorm vivid verbs and descriptive images to help students paint a picture with their words. And the change of pace and switch in location will help get your students' creative juices flowing. Have fun! -Addie Williams

9. I am a huge proponent of helping students practice mindfulness through yoga, meditation, and nature. Having the opportunity to take students outside, even just briefly, is a powerful opportunity! You can work with students on basic yoga techniques, breathing exercises, and meditation practices to help prepare them for the day ahead of them. Practicing these outside in nature provides a specific space and time for students to unplug, focus, and balance their minds for the day! -The SuperHERO Teacher

What are some other ways you bring your English class "into the wild"? Let us know in comments, or reach out @secondaryenglishcoffeeshop. We can't wait to hear from you!

Professional Development Books for Middle and High School Teachers

Hello-- The SuperHERO Teacher here! During the summer, and even during the school year, I love to get lost in an inspiring professional development book to inspire me to make a positive difference in my students’ lives while they are in my classroom! Today, I am going to share some of my favorite professional development books and resources to further the impact you’re having on your students.

To help guide you through your professional development reads, I've created a notes page for you to document the most important themes, ideas, or takeaways from the books! You can download the freebie here or by clicking the photo below. 

 I met Monica Genta at the Teach Your Heart Out Conference in Nashville, TN and was in awe of her enthusiasm and captivating sessions about how to engage your middle and high schoolers using a variety of innovative teaching techniques, games, and basically, awesomeness! Shortly after meeting her the first time, I started reading two of her books, Game Changers and 180Days of Awesome, and OH MY GOODNESS they are literal game changers for your classroom.  The first thing I love about these PD books is the fact that they are written in teacher lingo.  There’s jokes, to the point action steps, and it’s evident that all of the tips, tricks, and secrets shared are suggested by an actual teacher—unlike some of the administration led professional development. Secondly, you can use the suggestions in both of these books throughout the entire school year!  You can use them as a reference piece for daily inspiration or engaging ideas for your students.

Let me take a moment to tell you about the professional development book that rocked my world—Mindset: The New Psychology of Success byCarol Dweck.  Growth mindset is so much more than an educational buzz word right now—it’s a way to help your students handle perseverance, determination, and failure with confidence in their abilities.  Isn’t that an incredible power to have? I was familiar with growth mindset, but I didn’t truly understand the science behind it, and if I don’t understand something, I definitely cannot translate it into something students can use.  Therefore, I purchased this book and even after the first time reading through, Dweck was a able to easily explain the science behind growth mindset and how to implement it in your classroom.  If you haven’t already, you should absolutely sit down at the pool this summer and quickly read through this PD book for educators.  You’ll feel focused and inspired to shape your students’ mindsets.

My friend Christina from The Daring English Teacher suggested this incredibly powerful professional development read called Teaching With Poverty in Mind: What Being Poor Does to Kids’ Brains and What Schools Can do about It.  The author, Eric Jenson, talks candidly about how poverty hurts children, and how schools can ultimately improve academic achievement and life readiness of economically disadvantaged students. This is our ultimate job as educators—to make sure we are reaching every single student that enters our classroom.  That can be challenging, but it’s empowering and rewarding to have that sort of impact on students—especially those who need it most. 

Creating a classroom environment and atmosphere that is synonymous with that YOU want and what’s best for your students can be a bit of a challenge, which is why I created this Transform Your Classroom in 20 Steps Challenge to inspire you to achieve the classroom of your dreams.  In the challenge, I provide specific action steps designed to guide you through the process of creating a classroom that is inspiring, organized, and purposeful for your students.  I designed this resource based on the Extreme Makeover Classroom Editions that I host for deserving teachers, so all of my secrets and suggestions are included in this booklet.  In addition, I include six (6) extension videos where I go into more details about how to transform your classroom environment, which serves as a mini-professional development.

Don't forget to download your free note-taking resource while you complete your summer time professional development reads! Enjoy!
Brittany Wheaton
The SuperHERO Teacher

Easy Ways to Use Photos in an ELA Class

I love to take photos, look at photos and be inspired by photos.  And I especially love to use photographs in my English classes as a way to teach short story elements, mood, point of view and as inspiration for all types of student writing.  Here are five easy ways you can use photos in your class.

There are so many ways to use photos as writing prompts for students in your class. Here are a few of my favorite prompts to use with photos.

  •  If I were there I would…
  •  What happens next?
  • What happened just before this photo was taken?
  • Who took the photo? Why did they take it? Describe the photographer.
  •  Describe the photo to someone who can’t see it.  Use vivid and clear language to paint a picture with your words.
Grab a FREE copy of a writing planner & writing paper to use 
with any photo HERE!

When teaching students about point of view I love to incorporate photos and I love to find photos that show people from different places and different time periods. I often buy vintage postcards at antique shops or buy sets of photo cards from places of historical significance. The photo cards / post cards can be used as task cards at a writing center or stations.  

As practice for writing in different points of view you can use the following prompts.
  • Tell the story from the point of view of one of the people in the photo.  Use first person. 
  •  Tell the story from the point of view of one of the people in the photo. Use third person.
  •  Tell the story from the point of view of one of the objects in the photo. (You may not tell it from the point of view of a person). Use first person.
  •  Tell the story from the point of view of one of the objects in the photo. (You may not tell it from the point of view of a person). Use third person.
    I find vintage photos especially fun to use for point of view practice - a great way to get students to think historically, put themselves in someone else's shoes and to think from a perspective that may be a bit challenging for them. I picked up these vintage photo cards when I was in Alaska! I've had them for over 10 years and have used them every year since I bought them!

Find photographs of people from all over the world, of different ages and backgrounds. Use them as the inspiration for a character in a short story. Print them out and ask students to use them as their protagonist or antagonist.

Look for photo of places – use them as a setting.  Photos could be of a bookstore, landscape, a castle in France… be creative and imaginative as you are looking.  Use photographs from different time periods to add an extra creative element.  I took this photo on a hike this winter... I love the light and would use this photo as inspiration for the setting of a short story.  You could even assign students different genres of writing.  This photo could be used as a setting for a science fiction story, a fantasy, a romance, a mystery... 

Find a photo of a problem – it could be a broken down car, people arguing, a terrible storm, a shipwreck and use is as an inciting incident in a story or the main source of conflict.

Source photos that represent different moods – they could be somber, creepy, dark, or uplifting.  Students can brainstorm different words to incorporate into a short story to help create the mood of the story using the photo as inspiration.

Check out my Photo Prompts Resource - it includes 48 photo prompts that can be used for creative writing, point of view practice, shorty story inspiration and more!  Click HERE.

Just as photos can be used as writing prompts, they can also be used to inspire a poem. Photographs are a fabulous way to encourage use of imagery and other figurative language as students paint a picture with their words. Use photos of objects and ask students to write a poem personifying the object or have students use a vibrant photo of a street scene to practice writing with imagery.

With the increased popularity in fun fonts and inspirational quotes there are so many beautiful posters available on line to use as classroom décor. However, why not use your own photos or your students’ photos to create your own! Source a quote online and then create your own poster in Canva or in one of the many free apps for a smartphone. I used Photo Collage Maker for the photo below. Send them to yourself and then print them out and decorate your room!

  • Take Your Own – I am always on the lookout for photo opportunities for use in my classroom – it might be funny, quirky, interesting or beautiful… but if I can use it I will.
  • Your Students – chances are your students have 100s, if not 1000s of photos on their phones – ask them to submit one with their own writing prompt!
  • Vintage / Antique Markets – look for old photographs and postcards… my students have always loved working with vintage pictures from our local museum. (Check with your local museum to see if you can access their collection online.
  • Online -If you are only planning to use the photographs with your own students in your own classroom you can find endless photographs on the internet.  Some of my favorite websites for sourcing photographs (and they allow commercial use) are Unsplash and Morguefile.
For more fun photo ideas in your ELA classroom check out the following resources from my Coffee Shop Colleagues!

Nouvelle ELA - 5-Minute Journal Prompts
The Daring English Teacher - Descriptive Writing Mini Unit
Room 213 - Descriptive Writing Learning Stations

7 St. Patrick's Day Activities For English

You're in LUCK! If you're stumped for ideas on how you can incorporate St. Patrick's Day activities into your English Language Arts class, here are seven ideas to help you get started!

A great way to establish a routine in any classroom is through the use of daily writing prompts/bell ringers. Not only are students practicing their writing daily, but they are also developing a standard in your class, which might also encourage students to arrive to class on time, prepared to write!

Here are five themed writing prompts that you could use with your students:

1. Write a 50-100 word story using the first line, "It was March 17th, just another day of the week. I got dressed, looked in the mirror and saw that my face was completely green..."

2. What's the difference between luck and fate? If someone were to win the lottery, would you think they were lucky or that it was meant to happen? Give reasons to explain your answer.

3. Write a 10 line St. Patrick's Day poem using the following words: green, four leaf clover, rainbow, a pot of gold, March, leprechaun, lucky, Irish, shamrock, and magic.

4. The four-leaf clover is one of the most recognized good luck charms. Identify some positive and negative factors of those who might rely on charms. What are some other examples of good luck charms? What or who is your lucky charm?

5. Was there ever a time in your life that you can recall relying on that lucky penny you found? If you found a penny today, would you still consider it to be lucky? Why or why not?

Use these fun St. Patrick's Day-themed topics to practice public speaking and debate-style skills in your classroom! Get your students moving by hanging up four signs that indicate the following: strongly agree, agree, strongly disagree, disagree. 

Present the following topics and let the discussion begin! Students should be prepared to share their reasons for their opinion selection, so they should choose their decision wisely.
  • Discussion topic #1: There is no such thing as good or bad luck.
  • Discussion topic #2: St. Patrick's Day or St. Paddy's Day?
  • Discussion topic #3: Number 7 is a lucky number.
  • Discussion topic #4: St. Patrick's Day should be a holiday.
  • Discussion topic #5: There is nothing 'lucky' about the four leaf clover.
Often, we forget how truly lucky we are and it's during times of reflection when we only realize this. If you're looking to incorporate a themed activity into your teaching, but do not have a lot of spare time with current, ongoing lessons, consider using this FREE 'Reasons Why I'm Lucky' one-page worksheet with your students. Grab the worksheet HERE! It will give students an opportunity to reflect on reasons why they are lucky, and even better, it won't take up a lot of your class time.
St. Patrick's Day is not all about leprechauns and rainbows, give your students an opportunity to learn more about this day by going on a WebQuest! There are many online sources to find the information, so here are a few questions that you may have them research:
1. Where and when was St. Patrick born?
2. Why is St. Patrick's Day celebrated on March 17? 
3. Where did the first St. Patrick's Day parade occur?
4. What is the significance of the color green to this day?
5. In what country did this celebration originate?
6. Was Saint Patrick actually Irish?
7. What is the legend about the snakes and Saint Patrick?

One of the most beneficial real-world activities that I have incorporated into my English classes are career education activities. Honestly, students will be having so much fun they will forget they are even learning! In order to help prepare students for life outside of the classroom, I have them create career projects based on specific holidays, depending on the time of year.

This St. Patrick's Day Career Project is a fun way for students to learn basic skills and requirements for a job or career. This is also a great way to bring the St. Paddy's Day spirit into the classroom, while practicing writing skills and allowing students to be creative. Students do not necessarily have to complete all of activities in the project; you can pick and choose what would work best and depending on the time available.

First, students will pick a random St. Patrick's Day themed job out of a hat. Next, students will reflect on that job as to what skills would be required for that particular position. Finally, students will learn the formats of these real-world documents and complete a variety of tasks for that role: job application, resume, cover letter, reference letter, and how to properly address an envelope.
An editable rubric and templates for the resume and cover letter have been included. You can find a copy of this week-long project HERE!

If you're looking to try something new with your students, consider these Irish-inspired books for young adults! This might be a fun addition to a classroom library and these would be a perfect way for students to explore a new author.

1. Green by Laura Peyton Roberts
2. Artemis Fowl by Eoin Colfer
3. The Hounds of the Morrigan by Pat O-Shea
4. The Brides of Rollrock Island by Margo Lanagan\
5. The Raven Boys by Maggie Stiefvater

A fun and easy way to get all students in involved in poetry are to write and share a limerick. Most people associate this type of poetry with St. Patrick's Day because of a place called Limerick in Ireland.

Elements of a limerick:
  • 5 lines long
  • Rhyme scheme of "AABBA"
  • End the first line with a name of a person or place
  • The last line should be humorous
If you are short on time (or teach younger students), check out this online limerick generator to help your students get started!

In addition to writing limericks, you might also take this time to consider a short lesson on a famous limerick poet, Edward Lear. 

Check out these other St. Patrick's Day Activities:
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